So, Day 2 dawned and it was drier!
Apparently the Azores is another area that lays claim to the legend of Atlantis. The archipelago has authority to an area of over 1million square km, however only 2’346 square km is dry land. The 9 Islands are now unified as an autonomous region but geographically form three distinct island groups.
We learned how the Azores has been a pioneer for Portugal in sustainable energy, for example creating the first HEP and geothermal power stations or wave platforms. There is a real drive for renewable sustainable energy and efficient resource use, with a series of companies such as Renault or universities such as MIT using the Azores for research and development into sustainable energy. The region is part of the Green Islands initiative with the government aiming for 60% sustainable energy by 2050, and looking to achieve at lease 50% on current trends. Geothermal energy accounts for 30% and these energy sources are allowing the region to reduce reliance on foreign imports and become more self-sufficient. Additionally, for four consecutive years they have won the a Sustainable Tourism Award. So there is a huge amount of scope to use the Azores as a case study to hinge upon sustainability and resource use. This could tie to many key stages and be interlinked to many curriculum areas.
First stop today was the Centrale Geothermico do Pico – the main geothermal power station in São Miguel island. It accounts for 43% of all of the island’s energy, with 6% from hydro and another 6% from wind energy. Admittedly the island is small and has a limited population, but then this is a good case of resources being well used on a small scale. The energy is purely used to drive turbines for electricity production, not for the creation of hot water or central heating (unlike Iceland) due to the nature of the geothermic fluid and the differing composition of chemicals that would require treating to become safe first.
After this we visited Salta de Cambrico waterfall. This involved a walk from the power station up and down some steep hills past fumeroles through the grass and to an older remote controlled HEP station. The cataract was very pretty through the canyon, but there was quite a challenging walk back out. This involved climbing over the HEP pipelines on rickety metal mesh walkways and scrambling over tumbled landslide debris and trees. All quite exciting for some adults and intrepid geographers, but would be a challenge for many! There are alternative routes out however.
For lunch we stopped at Ribeira Grande town, one of the three largest towns on the island. We strolled around and explored the town for an hour, investigating how you could use the area for a field trip. Suggestions include land use (and perhaps comparing to other areas), redevelopment and gentrification (particularly along the riverside), culture (interesting to see the differing architecture and the personalisation of houses – particularly very ornate plaques depicting the household saint and family that lived there displayed above each doorway), investigating globalisation and tourism. It is a very safe feeling and small town that would be easily navigable by students of many ages in small groups.
For our relaxation and enjoyment we visited Caldeira Velha (Caldeira here meaning <em>cauldron</em> or hot place) gardens and thermal pool. The area felt like something out of Jurassic Park or Costa Rica with dense lush tropical vegetation and steaming waters. A simple tourist centre described the area and local volcanism. Then there is a choice of two small bathing areas. At the top, a cold waterfall and plunge pool and at the bottom a bubbling hot spring leads into a lovely warm iron-rich soaking pool. Be warned though – jewellery does get a yellow coating here!
We drove across the caldera rim and observed Lagoa do Fogo nature reserve and lake, then headed back to Pousada Lagoa and visited the <em>Observatorio Vulcanologico e Geothermico Dos Acores</em> – a small volcanic activity observatory. At present this is being renovated but largely feels like you are rifling through the loft of someone’s belongings! There was a variety of artefacts of different rock types and fossils from around the world, however this is not particularly tourist friendly as yet. But there is great potential. Interestingly, the area forms one of a few places that is located accurately for measuring geological movement and so a Chinese university has placed equipment in the basement in order to track and monitor tectonic shifts over time – and the Azores is currently moving and growing by approximately 2cm per year.
So, another busy day! And we all slept well. I was route marched round the Lagoa town for a hilly coastal 30minute run by a colleague so all good training!